当前位置:首页 > 新闻 > 国内 > 正文

乾隆通宝赏析

http://www.baidu.com/ 2021-03-02 14:33

简介:


【藏.荐】栏为藏品强大的传播效应向各位买家推荐经国家一级鉴定专家甄选的艺术珍品,为藏家牵线搭桥,让千百件艺术珍品价值被发掘与重视,在拍卖会上得以高价成交。



【名        称】:  乾隆通宝



【藏 品 类 型】:    杂项



【藏 品 年代】:  清代



【藏 品 信 息】: 一枚



货币是用于度量价格的工具,和购买货物的媒介,也是保存财富的一种手段,“吾以吾之所有予市场,换吾之所需”,这就是货币的运用手段。不过最早的社会中,是没有“货币”这一说法的,人们普遍以物易物,通过交换来获得自己想要的东西,之后才诞生了货币这一物物交换的中间媒介。我国使用货币已经有四千年多年的历史了,也是世界上使用货币最早的国家之一。我们所使用的最早的货币是海贝,在如今挖掘出来的史前文化遗址中,也发现了海贝的痕迹。

Money is a tool to measure price, a medium to buy goods, and a means to preserve wealth. "I give what I have to the market in exchange for what I need." this is the use of money. However, in the earliest society, there was no such saying as "money". People generally bartered to get what they wanted through exchange, and then money was born as the intermediate medium of barter. China has been using currency for more than 4000 years, and it is also one of the earliest countries in the world. The earliest currency we use is seashells, and the traces of seashells are also found in the prehistoric cultural sites excavated today.


我国的货币不仅有着悠久的历史,连种类也是十分的多,形成了与其他国家 不同的货币文化。海贝作为最早的货币,随着商品经济的发展,天然的贝壳供不应求,最后就诞生了人工的货币,之后随着时代的发展,出现了铜制的金属货币。春秋战国之后,以贝为货币的历史就已经成为过去了,而这一时期,人们还没有形成统一的货币,每个地区都有各地的钱币。秦灭六国之后,将方孔半两钱作为法定货币,我国古代的货币形态才固定下来,而这一形态一直延续使用到了清朝末年。



China's currency not only has a long history, but also has many kinds, forming a different currency culture from other countries. As the earliest currency, seashells were in short supply with the development of commodity economy. At last, artificial currency was born. Later, with the development of the times, copper metal currency appeared. After the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, the history of shellfish as currency has become a thing of the past. During this period, people have not yet formed a unified currency, and there are coins in every region. After the Qin Dynasty destroyed the six states, it took fangkong banliang coin as legal tender, so the ancient form of currency in China was fixed, and this form continued to be used until the end of the Qing Dynasty.

  在如今的古玩收藏界,收藏家收藏的玩意种类繁多,有的喜欢瓷器,有的喜欢字画,而钱币作为法定的货币,在商品交换的过程中起到了重要作用。而抛去货币的种种角色,仅仅只作为艺术品和文物,货币也深得收藏家的青睐,有时候在拍卖场上也能看到货币的身影。无论是现代货币,还是古代货币,都有收藏价值,每一种货币都与当时的政治、经济、文化有着密切的联系,所以货币也是能够反映历史的物件之一。时间不断的前进,年代越久远,发行量越少的货币,就成为货币收藏家眼中的香饽饽。

In today's antique collection world, collectors collect a wide range of things, some like porcelain, some like calligraphy and painting, and coins, as legal tender, play an important role in the process of commodity exchange. Money is only used as works of art and cultural relics. It is also favored by collectors. Sometimes money can be seen in the auction house. Both modern money and ancient money have collection value. Each kind of money is closely related to the politics, economy and culture of that time, so money is also one of the objects that can reflect history. With the continuous progress of time, the longer the time is, the less the currency is issued, which becomes the hot spot in the eyes of currency collectors.


雍正十三年(1735年),清高宗即位,改元乾隆。铸行“乾隆通宝”,要求仍重一钱二分,该钱书法铸工都比雍正时更为精美。最初清政府仍继续执行通货紧缩的政策。钱局较雍正时有所增减,首先在乾隆四年,停了宝河、宝巩、宝济三局,于乾隆五年时开宝福局,七年开宝桂局,十年开宝直局。乾隆朝以前的制钱不加锡,以铜、铅、锌配制,称之为“黄钱”,在乾隆五年规定在铸钱铜料之中加百分之二的锡,称为“青钱”。官方说是为杜绝私钱,实则无异于减重。“乾隆四十年时,私铸情况日盛,各省官员出现盗铸,政府对此无计可施,加上云南铜产量逐年递减,导致铜价飞涨,铸钱成本也随之水涨船高。清政府继而又采取了通货紧缩政策,先后停铸了宝直、大理、广西、临安等局,同时鼓励商人从海外进口铜材。但是这些措施未能从根本上解决问题,私铸虽有所减少,但官钱不见增加,民间交易缺钱,就出现了使用古钱的现象。到了乾隆五十年后,又相继开了宝直等局,同时放宽了铸钱的标准,所以导致乾隆后期制钱的质量参差不齐,大不如初的情况。 


In 1735, Emperor Gaozong of the Qing Dynasty ascended the throne and changed the Yuan Dynasty to Qianlong. The requirement of casting "Qianlong Tongbao" is still one coin and two cents, which is more exquisite than that of Yongzheng. At first, the Qing government continued to implement the policy of deflation. First, in the fourth year of Qianlong reign, Baohe, Baogong and Baoji bureaus were suspended. In the fifth year of Qianlong reign, Baofu Bureau was opened, Baogui Bureau was opened in the seventh year, and Baozhi Bureau was opened in the tenth year. Before the Qianlong Dynasty, there was no tin in the coin making process. It was made of copper, lead and zinc, which was called "yellow coin". In the fifth year of Qianlong, it was stipulated that two percent of tin should be added to the coin casting copper, which was called "green coin". Officials say it's to stop private money, but in fact it's weight loss. "In the 40th year of Qianlong reign, the situation of private casting became more and more prosperous, and the officials of various provinces stole the casting. The government had no way to do anything about it. In addition, the copper production in Yunnan decreased year by year, which led to the soaring copper price and the rising cost of casting money. The Qing government then adopted the deflation policy, stopped casting Baozhi, Dali, Guangxi, Lin'an and other bureaus, and encouraged merchants to import copper materials from overseas. However, these measures failed to fundamentally solve the problem. Although private casting decreased, official money did not increase, and private transactions lacked money, so the phenomenon of using ancient money appeared. Fifty years after the reign of Emperor Qianlong, Baozhi and other bureaus were set up one after another. At the same time, the standard of coin casting was relaxed. As a result, the quality of coin making in the later period of Emperor Qianlong was uneven.


乾隆通宝是乾隆时期流通的货币,从公元1736年至公元1795年六十年的时间里,乾隆皇帝在位时间整整六十年,而乾隆在位期间,所铸造钱币的数量,要远远多于雍正和顺治通宝。乾隆在位期间,是我国历史上最后一个辉煌盛世,又因为“乾隆”谐音为“钱隆”,所以乾隆通宝成为很多收藏家争相收藏的钱币。


Qianlong Tongbao was the currency in circulation during the Qianlong period. In the 60 years from 1736 to 1795, the reign of Emperor Qianlong lasted for 60 years. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, the number of coins cast was far more than that of Yongzheng and Shunzhi Tongbao. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, it was the last golden age in the history of our country. Because the homonym of "Qianlong" was "Qianlong", Qianlong Tongbao became the coin that many collectors scrambled to collect.


Tags: the  and


标签 the in ing