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清代鹰洋币精品推荐

http://www.baidu.com/ 2021-01-13 15:52

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【藏.荐】栏为藏品强大的传播效应向各位买家推荐经国家一级鉴定专家甄选的艺术珍品,为藏家牵线搭桥,让千百件艺术珍品价值被发掘与重视,在拍卖会上得以高价成交。



【名        称】:  鹰洋币



【藏 品 类 型】:    杂项



【藏 品 年代】:  清代



【藏 品 信 息】: 重:27g 宽:3.9cm 厚:2.47mm



1521年, 西班牙殖民者占领了墨西哥,并于1535年在美洲设立了包括墨西哥与美国南部总共450万平方公里的第一个总督辖区,称之为“新西班牙总督区”。西班牙殖民者征服墨西哥后,曾试图使用西班牙银币。但是,他们很快发现,西班牙银币完全不能满足这个庞大的殖民地的需求。同时,为了便于把殖民地的贵金属运往宗主国, 西班牙王室决定在殖民地设立造币厂。1535年,根据西班牙国王卡洛斯5世(Carlos V)的旨令,新西班牙总督区在征服者首领科尔特斯宅邸附近(现墨西哥城市中心宪法广场西侧)建立了美洲第一家造币厂。由于当时主要铸造银币,因此,开采和提炼的银子越来越多,铸币业一度成为当时最有活力的产业。

In 1521, Spanish colonists occupied Mexico, and in 1535, they established the first governor's district in America, including Mexico and the south of the United States, with a total area of 4.5 million square kilometers. After the Spanish colonists conquered Mexico, they tried to use Spanish silver coins. However, they soon found that the Spanish silver coins could not meet the needs of this huge colony. At the same time, the Spanish royal family decided to set up a mint in the colony in order to transport the precious metals of the colony to the sovereign country. In 1535, according to the decree of Carlos V, the new Spanish governor established the first Mint in America near the residence of Cortes, the conqueror's leader (West of the Constitution Square in the center of Mexico City). Since silver coins were mainly made at that time, more and more silver was mined and refined, and the coinage industry became the most dynamic industry at that time.

到16世纪中期,墨西哥的白银使用量已占全世界耗银总量的三分之一,大部份铸成银币,在西班牙的殖民地发行,用作国际贸易支付,或运回宗主国。16世纪末,墨西哥境内已经有几十家造币厂。在不到3个世纪里,共铸造了20亿比索的金币与银币。造币工业巩固了新西班牙总督区的经济,为西班牙注入了资本的原始积累。

By the middle of the 16th century, Mexico's silver consumption had accounted for one third of the world's total silver consumption, most of which were minted into silver coins, issued in the Spanish colonies, used for international trade payments, or shipped back to the suzerain. By the end of the 16th century, there were dozens of mints in Mexico. In less than three centuries, two billion pesos of gold and silver coins were minted. The mint industry consolidated the economy of the new Spanish Viceroy and injected the original accumulation of capital into Spain.

1536年,墨西哥首次铸造、发行的银币命名为“卡洛斯与胡安娜”,与西班牙银币完全同质同价,印记也相似,只是略厚一些,并在币面上打上“M”的标记。直到现在,还是墨西哥各种硬币的统一标记。当时,尽管造币工艺讲究,但是手段落后。这一标记是用鎯头手工打上去的。1569年,墨西哥城的造币厂搬到现今国家宫的北侧。到17世纪中叶为止,墨西哥造币厂一直铸造新西班牙总督区通用的银币。1675年,才由西班牙国王卡洛斯2世批准铸造面值为1、2、4、8盾的金币。18世纪初, 欧洲发明了一次成型的造币机。 西班牙波旁王朝 费利佩5世决定把这种先进的造币技术引进到新西班牙总督区。墨西哥造币厂采用先进技术后,很快造出了8、4、2、1、0.5里亚尔的金币(当时西班牙与美洲殖民地通用的货币单位,约合1/4比塞塔)。由于图案上是大力神柱子框起来的 新大陆与旧大陆,另一面是 西班牙国徽,因此,这套金币被称作“科卢姆纳里亚”(Columnaria),意为“圆柱币”。其质量、工艺、成色堪称一流,是世界上最好的硬币,被世界各国接受为支付手段。墨西哥铸造的这些金币,是最早的世界通货。

In 1536, the silver coin first minted and issued in Mexico was named "Carlos and Juana", which is of the same quality and price as the Spanish silver coin. The mark is also similar, but slightly thicker, and marked with "m". Until now, it is the unified mark of various coins in Mexico. At that time, although the coining process was exquisite, the means were backward. The mark was made by hand with a hammer. In 1569, the mint in Mexico City moved to the north of what is now the National Palace. Until the middle of the 17th century, the Mexican Mint had been casting silver coins commonly used in the viceroy of New Spain. In 1675, King Carlos II of Spain approved the casting of gold coins with denominations of 1, 2, 4 and 8 dunces. At the beginning of the 18th century, Europe invented the one-step mint. Felipe V of the Spanish Bourbon Dynasty decided to introduce this advanced coinage technology to the new Spanish viceroy. After adopting advanced technology, the Mexican Mint soon produced 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 rials of gold coins (the common currency unit of Spain and the American colonies at that time, about 1 / 4 peseta). Because the design is the new and old world framed by the pillars of Hercules, and the other side is the national emblem of Spain, this set of gold coins is called "columnaria", which means "cylindrical coin". It is the best coin in the world in terms of quality, workmanship and fineness, and has been accepted as a means of payment by countries all over the world. These gold coins made in Mexico are the earliest currency in the world.

1821年墨西哥独立后使用的新铸币,它是从1823年开始铸造的。鹰洋大体分为两种,1897年以前的花边鹰洋币和 1898年以后的直边鹰洋币。晚清民国年间,外国银元输入中国者,属墨西哥鹰洋币最多。据清朝宣统二年(1910)度支部调查统计,当时中国所流通的外国银元约有十一亿枚,其中有三分之一是墨西哥鹰洋币。墨西哥鹰洋币的成色较其他外国银元为佳,而且多年不变,人们都乐于使用。墨西哥鹰洋币在中国南部、中部各省流通非常广泛,几乎成为主币。上海的外国银行发行纸币,在民国八年(1919)以前都以墨西哥鹰洋币为兑换标准。

A new coinage used after Mexico's independence in 1821, it began to be minted in 1823. There are two kinds of Yingyang: the lace Yingyang coin before 1897 and the straight edge Yingyang coin after 1898. During the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, the number of foreign silver dollars imported into China was the largest. According to the survey and statistics of the second year of Xuantong (1910) of the Qing Dynasty, there were about 1.1 billion foreign silver dollars in circulation in China at that time, one third of which were Mexican falcons. The quality of Mexican falcon is better than other foreign silver dollars, and it has remained unchanged for many years, so people are willing to use it. Mexican Eagle foreign currency is widely circulated in southern and central provinces of China, almost becoming the main currency. Before 1919, foreign banks in Shanghai used Mexican eagle as the exchange standard.

作为世界五大投资币之首,美国的鹰洋金币历来是世界上最具影响力并广受欢迎的金币之一。这枚2009年发行的鹰洋金币是美国为了纪念鹰洋投资币而特别发行的一枚超高技术浮雕金币(个人理解,应该跟我们91年的1盎司加厚熊猫金币类似,但是价格还不如ngc 69加厚金猫)。采用的是1907年鹰洋币的经典设计,重1.001盎司(31.109克),9999纯金,正面是迈着大步前进的自由女神,一手拿火炬,一手拿橄榄枝,背景是太阳放射的光芒,右下方刊年份2009的罗马数字“MMIX”。背面是展翅飞翔的雄鹰,它是美国的象征(1907年的双鹰币上的鹰被认为是最美好的事物),鹰的上方刊国名和面额,下方为美国国家格言的英文“IN GOD WE TRUST(我们信仰上帝)”字样。边缘有代表50个州的50颗星,中间穿插的是美国国家格言的拉丁文“E Pluribus Unum(合众为一)”

As one of the five largest investment currencies in the world, Yingyang gold coin of the United States has always been one of the most influential and popular gold coins in the world. This Yingyang gold coin issued in 2009 is an ultra-high-tech relief gold coin specially issued by the United States to commemorate Yingyang investment coin (I understand that it should be similar to our 1-ounce thickened Panda Gold Coin in 1991, but the price is not as good as NGC 69 thickened gold cat). It adopts the classic design of 1907 Eagle Coin, weighing 1.001 ounces (31.109 grams), 9999 pure gold, with the statue of liberty striding forward on the front, torch in one hand and olive branch in the other hand. The background is the light of the sun, and the Roman numeral "mMix" of 2009 is printed on the bottom right. On the back is a flying eagle, which is the symbol of the United States (the eagle on the 1907 Double Eagle Coin is considered the most beautiful thing). The name and denomination of the country are printed on the top of the eagle, and the English words "in God we trust" are printed on the bottom. On the edge, there are 50 stars representing 50 states, inters

墨西哥一直保持着悠久的铸币传统,这已经成为一种艺术。对于集币爱好者来说,收集到墨西哥的各钟硬币,是很珍贵的。此枚钱币品相完整,齿轮清晰,经专家老师鉴定,此藏品具有一定的收藏价值。

Mexico has a long tradition of coinage, which has become an art. For coin collectors, it's very precious to collect all the coins from Mexico. This coin is complete and the gear is clear. It has been identified by experts and teachers that this collection has a certain collection value.

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