【名 称】: 青花盘子
【藏 品 类 型】: 瓷器
【藏 品 年代】： 民代
【藏 品 信 息】:民国早期青花盘
As we all know, blue and white porcelain is a treasure of China's ceramic baking technology. Today, Xiaobian will introduce blue and white porcelain, and talk about the development, characteristics and patterns of blue and white porcelain.
When it comes to blue and white, the first thing you think of is Jay Chou's "blue and white porcelain". The sentence "sky is blue and white, waiting for smoke and rain, while I'm waiting for you" came into your mind and sang out. But in fact, sky blue is the color of Ru kiln, and blue and white porcelain was originally derived from the basket color of Tang Sancai. Then someone will ask, blue and white porcelain is blue, why is it called blue and white porcelain? In fact, the main reason is that the color of blue and white porcelain is the chemical change of the green material in the roasting process, and the color rendering is the intuitive feeling of the green material after firing. Next, let's talk about the history and characteristics of blue and white porcelain.
Blue and white porcelain first appeared in the Tang Dynasty. The initial reason for its birth was that after the an Shi rebellion, the Tang Dynasty gradually weakened, while other porcelain developed too fast. The production of Tang Sancai porcelain gradually declined. Because of the overthrow of the dynasty at that time, Tang Sancai gradually disappeared in people's eyes, and its skills also disappeared. Later generations wanted to reproduce the three colors of the Tang Dynasty, so they used the raw materials of the three colors in Huangye kiln. Unfortunately, due to various reasons, the porcelain fired was not three colors, but blue and white porcelain. The characteristics of blue and white porcelain at that time were white porcelain, underglaze cobalt blue, and firing temperature of 1300 ℃. At that time, people found that this kind of porcelain was not inferior to Tang Sancai, or after hundreds or even thousands of firing, they could not produce Sancai porcelain, so they regarded blue and white porcelain as the continuation of Tang Sancai.
The early blue and white porcelain did not develop rapidly, but declined. According to Xiaobian, 13 pieces of blue and white bowls were unearthed from the Jinsha pagoda base in Longquan County, Zhejiang Province in 1957. On the brick of the tower, there is the absolute date of the second year of Taiping rejuvenating the country (977) of the Northern Song Dynasty; on the other side, a fragment of the belly of a blue and white bowl was unearthed from the base of Huancui tower in Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province in 1970. Some of these fragments are thicker and some are thinner. There are chrysanthemum pattern, circle pattern, string pattern, line pattern and so on. The former part of blue and white hair color is thick and black, but there is no continuity relationship with the blue and white porcelain of Tang Dynasty. The blue and white porcelain that is maturing is in Jingdezhen of Yuan Dynasty.
The blue and white porcelain of Yuan Dynasty is very mature and exquisite in terms of making formula and modeling decoration. In the aspect of decoration, it is characterized by rich composition, multi-level but not chaotic. The strokes are mainly composed of one stroke, smooth and powerful, while the sketching and rendering are thick and calm. The themes of theme decoration include characters, animals, plants, poetry and so on. The characters are Gao Shitu (four love pictures), historical figures, etc.; the animals are dragon and Phoenix, unicorn, mandarin duck, swimming fish, etc.; the common plants are peony, lotus, orchid, pine, bamboo and plum, Ganoderma lucidum, flower leaves, melon and fruit, etc.; the poems are rare.
In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, blue and white porcelain went from prosperity to decline. In Yongle and Xuande periods of the Ming Dynasty, blue and white porcelain reached its peak, which was famous for its exquisite production. In Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty, blue and white porcelain reached its peak with "five color blue and white"; after Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, it gradually declined due to the development of powder and color porcelain. Although it flourished in the late Qing Dynasty (Guangxu), it could not continue the prosperity of Kangxi Dynasty. Generally speaking, the official kilns in this period were rigorous and exquisite, while the folk kilns were casual, free and easy, with strong freehand brushwork. From the late Ming Dynasty, blue and white painting gradually absorbed some elements of Chinese painting techniques. The picture below is a group of Ming Xuande blue and white bowls and plates that Xiaobian was lucky to see.
This blue and white porcelain, open, oblique belly, round foot, has a regular shape, dignified and steady, firm body, bright glaze. Inside the plate, there is a beautiful scenery like the West Lake. Pavilion Pavilion, hall, Zhaitang room, house, fishing boat, and a beautiful scenery like happy and happy day. All around the plate, there are auspicious clouds and Huiwen. The strokes are delicate, the painting is neat, and the blue and white hair color is elegant The picture is complex and orderly, with clear levels, beautiful and natural, and smooth charm. Some of the patterns on the bottom are French, from which a blue and white plate can be produced. It may be a blue and white porcelain that was copied when it was introduced into France in the 17th century.