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【Name】：Ming Dynasty of China ten years yuan Head
【Specifications】：Diameter :39.1mm Weight: 26.5g
Yuan Tou was one of the main currencies in circulation during the Republic of China. "Yuan Tou" is a colloquial name for yuan Shikai's series of COINS, or, to be more precise, "Yuan Shikai's jiahe silver coin".After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Yuan Shikai became the great President in April 1912. In view of the complexity of coinage and paper currency at that time, there were more than 100 kinds of Chinese and foreign currency in circulation, with different specifications, chaotic circulation and complicated conversion. The people were resentful and wanted to solve the military expenditure problem by means of currency reform, so the Beiyang government decided to coin and issue national currency. Yuan Shikai in order to enhance his dominance, his head on the coin, "Yuan Big Head" from this.
On February 7, 1914 yuan shikai in the form of big presidential decree announced the regulations on the national currency and the national currency regulation enforcement rules, the main content is coin foundry distribution rights owned by the government of the republic of China, the original bureau casting issue each officer, 1 yuan silver, by the government of the republic of China to exchange and remold, in a period of time, admitted that their value is equal to the value of one yuan coin. The main coin of the state currency is 1 yuan silver, its weight is kuping pure silver six cents eight percent, the material is silver accounted for 89%, copper accounted for 10%, tin accounted for 1%, the weight of a finished silver is 7 cents 2 cents. Stipulate national coin kind has silver coin 4 kinds (one yuan, medium yuan, two horn, one horn), nickel coin one kind (5 cent), copper coin 5 kinds (2 cent, 1 cent, 5 centimes, 2 centimes, 1 centimetre). On the front, Yuan Shikai's profile head and issue date engraved, on the back, jiahe grain and currency. In the same year, the "National Coin Regulations" was first minted in the Tianjin Mint, and then minted in nanjing, Guangdong, Wuchang and other mints.
The frontal design of Yuan's silver coin, the middle is the left side image of Yuan Shikai's rong uniform. The top of yuan's silver coin in the 3rd year of the Republic of China is the "three years of the Republic of China". The eighth, ninth and tenth year of the Republic of China is the "year of the Republic of China". On the back are two intersecting ears of rice. In the center are the words "one yuan", "Middle yuan "(five jiao)," two jiao "and" one Jiao ". On the top are the words "every two should be a round", "Every five should be a round" and "every ten should be a round". On the front, Yuan Shikai's profile head and issue number engraved, on the back, Jiahe decoration and currency value were cast. The color of Yuan's official edition was 89.1%. The outer ring of the coin is mainly straight toothed edge, in addition, there are also a few cast I-shaped edge and flower toothed edge. In this series of COINS, 3 years, 9 years, 10 years and other single currency is more common, the republic of Eight years is less. However, in the three years of the "Yuan Big head", Yuan Shikai "signature version" is outstanding beloved by collectors. One is the English signature plate of the Italian plate maker, which was tri-cast by Tianjin Mint in the third year of the Republic of China. The other is a signed version (capital L·GIORGI) of Yuan Shikai's left profile in the posterior neck. The above two kinds (5 kinds) are sample COINS, which have not been used formally, so there are few in existence.
下面(背面)为嘉禾之图案， 古称生长奇异的禾，古人以之为吉祥的征兆。亦泛指生长茁壮的禾稻。典出《书·微子之命》:" 唐叔 得禾，异亩同颖，献诸天子。铸在钱币之上寓意国家重视农桑、以民生为本;其另一思想取其家和之谐音，寓意"家和万事兴"之意。铸币之上当政者有国泰民安、吉祥如意之愿景，民间收藏，寓意"家和万事兴"之吉祥之宝，故有很高的收藏研究价值。
Historical significance：Yuan Tou is known as the treasure of silver COINS in the field of currency collection. It is the most widely circulated and influential silver coin among nearly a thousand kinds of modern silver COINS in China, and also an important role in the reform of modern Chinese currency system. During the Reign of Emperor Guangxu, as the silver COINS were cast in all provinces, they were the same as the original silver, not only the weight and color could not be unified, but also the quantity could not be controlled. When the Revolution of 1911 broke out, the provinces, in a rush to use money, not only processed and cast silver, but also made copper COINS, and issued notes and military bills, making the currency system even more chaotic.
After the establishment of the Republic of China, the central finance almost had no revenue, and the financial crisis was very serious. In the short term, the issue of paper money is also a way to accumulate wealth, but the paper money is the representative of the silver dollar, is a voucher, without the full preparation and widespread circulation of silver, paper money credit is difficult to establish. At this moment, the currency reform is urgent -" Yuan Tai "silver was born on this basis, is also the inevitable result of the development of the silver. With the years to develop and its high reputation, the number of "Yuan's big head" was increasing and its circulation was becoming more and more extensive. Although the Chou was lonely, it had its own features. The passage of Yuan Tou's silver COINS promoted the unification of the silver COINS and prepared the conditions for the replacement of the two COINS.
Ten years in the ordinary version of the version, its patterns and characters and the general "Yuan Dat" no big difference, the casting. Others write one point of the "year" in an vertical or "7" shape, but less cast.
The top (front) of yuan's coin is a five-cent image of Yuan Shikai on the left, with "X year of the Republic of China" or "X Year of the Republic of China" cast in traditional Chinese characters, which has high historical and cultural research value and implies the ideological hope of "democracy, republic, constitutionalism and monarchy".
Below (back) for the pattern of jiahe, the ancient growth of strange grass, the ancients to it as a sign of good luck. Also generally refers to the vigorous growth of paddy rice. The book "Book · The Life of Wei Son" :" Uncle Tang received he, different acres with ying, presented to the sons of Heaven. Cast on the coin implies that the country attaches importance to agriculture and mulberry, with people's livelihood as this; His other thought takes the homophonic of "home and harmony", which means "home and everything goes well". On the coin, those in power have a vision of prosperity, peace and good fortune. Folk collection implies the auspicious treasure of "a prosperous family and everything", so it has a high value of collection and research.
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